Contents & Abstracts of June, 2005
(Volume 1, Issue 1)
International Journal of Cow Science, 1(1): 1-15.
Panchgavya (Cowpathy): An Overview
K DHAMA1, RAJESH RATHORE2, RS CHAUHAN2 AND SIMMI TOMAR3
1Division of Avian Diseases, 2Centre for Animal Disease Research and Diagnosis, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar? 243 122 (UP), India. E-mail: email@example.com 3Veterinary Officer, Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar? 243 122 (UP), India
Panchgavya is a term used to describe five major substances, obtained from cow, which include cow's urine, milk, ghee, curd and dung. All the five products possess medicinal properties against many disorders and are used for the medicinal purpose singly or in combination with some other herbs. This kind of treatment is called Panchgavya therapy or cowpathy. It is a system of medicine such as homeopathy, allopathy or naturopathy. The ancient ayurvedic literature (Vir Charak Samhita, Sushrut, Gad Nigrah) suggests a number of pharmacological applications of the substances obtained from Panchgavya. These substances are abundantly used in Ayurveda for treatment of several disorders such as leucoderma, hyperlipidemia, arthritis, renal disorders, dietary disorders, gastrointestinal track disorders, acidity, asthma etc. These remedies seem to be potent anticancer and anti HIV agents. Recently the cow urine has been granted U.S. Patents (No. 6410059 and 6896907) for its medicinal properties, particularly for its use along with antibiotics for the control of bacterial infection and fight against cancers. The Panchgavya products also show many other applications viz. excellent agricultural applications in the form of biofertilizers, vermicompost and biopesticides, which improves soil fertility and provide food grains free from the health hazards of using chemical fertilizers/pesticides. A systematic work needs to be carried out on chemical nature, biological activity, microbiology and pharmaceutical aspects and mechanism of bioactive compounds in Panchgavya. In the past due emphasis has not been given to the cow therapy which needs attention of scientific community.
KEYWORDS: Cowpathy, Panchgavya, cow urine, milk, dung, ghee, curd.
International Journal of Cow Science, 1(1): 16-26.
Paratuberculosis (Johne?s Disease) in Cattle
Division of Pathology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar ? 243 122 (U.P.)
Paratuberculosis (Johne?s disease), is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Though, it is primarily a disease of domestic and wild ruminants, the host range is wide and has been implicated with Crohn?s disease in humans. The infection has been spreading insidiously through the animal population for about a century and has almost become endemic in most countries including India. This happened because of poor knowledge of the complex biology of the organism and the lack of adequate and sustained efforts to restrict the spread of infection. The disease causes heavy economic losses to the dairy industry. Epidemiology of the paratuberculosis infection is changing due to increase in the host range and strain variation. A number of diagnostic tests are available that can be appropriately used for the diagnosis and control of the disease. With the availability of complete sequence of MAP genome, several specific and novel genes have been identified that can be exploited for the diagnosis. In India, since the disease mainly occurs at the organised farms, sustained efforts by all key players may lead to the control of disease. In this paper, epidemiology, diagnosis, control and public health issues of Johne?s disease in cattle have been briefly reviewed.
KEYWORDS: Paratuberculosis, Johne?s disease, Mycobacterium avium, cattle.
International Journal of Cow Science, 1(1): 27-32.
Somatic Cell Count (SCC) in relation to milk production, milk composition and sub clinical mastitis: A Review
P PANDEY, V PANDEY AND J SINGH
Apollo College of Veterinary Medicine, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The latest animal census reveals the fact that India has huge livestock population with 178 million cows and 93 million buffaloes. Its milk production crosses the 90 million tones per annum, but a cursory look on whole scenario clear the fact that milk production per animal is far low as compared to other countries like USA, Israel, etc. and moreover the export potential of Indian milk is very low due to poor milk quality. For taking the advantage of this many foreign companies comes with straight competition with cooperative and semi cooperative milk collection center. To view them at international level, it is an urgent necessity to produce clean milk along with a thought of increased production per head of animal. In the most of developed countries (International market) somatic cell count is used as an index to measure the quality of milk and its suitability for human consumption by describing the status of mammary gland. So to understand the concept this review is focused on SCC, its relation to milk production, milk composition and. sub clinical mastitis
KEYWORDS: Somatic cell count, milk quality, milk production, milk composition, clinical mastitis.
International Journal of Cow Science, 1(1): 33-35.
Effect of season of first calving on productive herd life, longevity and life time calf production in Tharparkar cow
POONMA RAM1 AND S.C. GOSWAMI2
1Department of Livestock Production & Management, Apollo College of Veterinary Medicine, Jaipur 302 015, Rajasthan, India.2Department of Livestock Production & Management, College of Veterinary & Animal Science, Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334 001, Rajasthan, India.
In the Present study, the effect of season of first calving was assessed on productive herd life (number of days in milk from the date of first calving to the date of disposal of cows from herd either due to culling or death), longevity (number of days from the date of birth to date of disposal of cows from herd either due to culling or death) and life time calf production (total calves born, total female calves born and total female calves reaching milking herd per cow). Least squares means and their standard error were estimated for different season of first calving groups for each trait. The overall means for productive herd life (days), longevity (days), total calves born to each cow, total female calves born to each cow, total female calves reaching milking herd from each cow were 1597.30 + 1056.47 days, 3341.15 + 1167.79 days, 4.37 + 2.71, 2.14 +1.84 and 0.91 + 1.08, respectively. The effect of season of first calving was non-significant on all traits i.e. productive herd life, longevity, total calves born to each cow, total female calves born to each cow and total female calves reaching milking herd from each cow.
KEYWORDS: Tharparkar, first calving, productive herd life, longevity, life time calf production.
International Journal of Cow Science, 1(1): 36-38.
Effect of indigenous cow urine on nutrient utilization of white leghorn layers
NIDHI GARG, ASHOK KUMAR AND RS CHAUHAN1
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar 263 145, India. E-mail: email@example.com 1Centre for Animal Disease Research and Diagnosis, Indian Veterinary Research institute, Izatnagar -243 122, UP, India,
Present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of distilled cow urine on the nutrient utilization by the white leghorn layers. For the purpose 100 birds were divided in to two groups of 50 each. One group was kept as control and second ?treatment? group was given cow urine @ 1 ml per bird. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were recorded at every 15 day intervals and proximate analysis of excreta was done to record the digestibility. The results showed that there was increase in feed intake, decreased feed conversion ratio and feed efficiency ratio. Digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, organic matter increased significantly in the cow urine treated group.
KEYWORDS: Cow urine, feed efficiency, feed conversion ratio, digestibility, white leghorn layers.
International Journal of Cow Science, 1(1): 39-42.
Effect of varying concentrate to fodder ratio on in situ degradability of fibre in cattle
Mesfin Dejene1, Ashok Kumar, NIDHI GARG, PRASOON CHAND SAXENA AND Ripusudan Kumar
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar 263 145, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 1Present address: Sirinka Agricultural Research Centre, P.O. Box. 74, Woldia, Ethiopia
Rumen degradability of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) of feeds containing different concentrate to sorghum fodder ratio was studied with the in situ nylon bag technique. The different fodder concentrate ratio samples were incubated in the rumen of 3 fistulated adult bullocks for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The feeds tested were 0g concentrate mixture + 5g sorghum fodder (variety Rio) of stage-I (75-82 DAS) (T1), 0g conc. mix. + 5g sorghum fodder of stage-II (105-112 DAS) (T2), 0.75g conc. mix. + 4.25g sorghum fodder of stage-I (T3), 0.75g conc. mix. + 4.25g sorghum fodder of stage-II (T4), 1.5g conc. mix. + 3.5g sorghum fodder of stage-I (T5), 1.5g conc. mix. + 3.5g sorghum fodder of stage-II (T6), 2.0g conc. mix. + 3.0g sorghum fodder of stage-I (T7) and 2.0g conc. mix. + 3.0g sorghum fodder of stage-II (T8). The disappearance of NDF and ADF increased with the increase in concentrate to fodder ratio. Stage-I had higher NDF and ADF disappearance than stage-II in each concentrate to fodder combination. In all treatments, the disappearance of NDF was higher compared to the disappearance of ADF. The instantly soluble component (a), degradation constant (c) and effective degradability (ED) of NDF and ADF were higher in stage-I than stage-II fodder. The instantly soluble component (a) and ED of NDF and ADF increase with the increased in concentrate to fodder ratio. The degradation kinetics studies indicated that sorghum fodder harvested at earlier stage was superior to harvest at later stage of growth for ruminants and it can be further improved by supplementation of concentrate.
KEYWORDS: NDF disappearance, ADF disappearance, concentrate to fodder ratio, in situ degradibility.
International Journal of Cow Science, 1(1): 43-46.
Changes in the blood constituents of working bullocks during exercise on Tread Mill Machine
VR BHAMBURKAR, SB BANUBAKODE AND RUPALI CHARJAN
Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Nagpur Veterinary College, Nagpur, India. E-mail: email@example.com
Bullocks of breeds Gaolao, non-descript and buffalo of 6-7 years of age were made to work on Tread Mill Machine with particular speed and weight for three hours. Haemoglobin, glucose, alkaline phophatase and creatinine level in blood showed increasing trend in all the three breeds used. The increase in level of these components was minimum in Gaolao and maximum in buffalo bullocks. These results indicated that the Gaolao bullocks are better suitable for draft purpose.
KEYWORDS: Tread Mill Test, blood constitutes, draught power, bullock.
International Journal of Cow Science, 1(1): 47-51.
Effect of level of concentrate supplement to sorghum fodder based diet on rumen fluid and blood metabolites in crossbred heifers
Mesfin Dejene1, Ashok kumar, PRASOON CHAND SAXENA, NIDHI GARG and Ripusudan Kumar
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar 263 1 45, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 1Sirinka Agricultural Research Centre, P.O. Box. 74, Woldia, Ethiopia.
Sixteen crossbred (Sahiwal ?Jersey) heifers of about the same age and body weight were randomly divided in to 4 groups of 4 each to study the effect of 4 levels of concentrate supplementation (0, 0.75, 1.5 and 2.0 kg/d/animal), in addition to ad libitum access to green sorghum fodder (GSF) variety Rio at two stages of growth [75-82DAS (stage I) and 105-112DAS (stage II)] on dry matter intake (DMI) and some rumen fluid and blood metabolites. Concentrate level significantly (P<0.01) affected DMI of the whole ration. When the concentrate level increased from 0 to 2.0 kg/d/animal, total mean DMI went up from 2.68 to 3.55 kg/100 kg BW. However, the increase in concentrate level led to a significant (P<0.01) decrease in DMI of GSF. Blood serum glucose except blood serum total protein (TP) was significantly (P<0.01) influenced by the dietary treatments. It was increased form 73.38 to 91.63 mg/dl as the concentrate level in the ration increased form 0 to 2.0 kg/d. The rumen fluid constituents (TP and glucose) were significantly (P<0.01) influenced by the dietary treatments. An increasing trend was observed with the increase in concentrate level in the ration. The interaction amongst the treatment groups for both rumen fluid constituents (TP and glucose) was also statistically significant (P<0.05).
KEYWORDS: Concentrate level, DMI, blood serum total protein, blood serum glucose, rumen fluid total protein, rumen fluid glucose.
International Journal of Cow Science, 1(1): 52-59.
Effect of hormonal therapies at breeding on plasma progesterone profile and fertility in repeat breeding Holstein Friesian cows
JA PATEL1, AJ DHAMI1, FS. KAVANI1 AND NP SARVAIYA2
1Department of Animal Reproduction, Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 2Reproductive Biology Research Unit, Gujarat College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 001 (India)
Twenty four repeat breeding HF cows with more than three infertile cycles were divided at random in 4 groups each of 6 animals with a view to study the relative efficacies of different hormonal therapies over control at breeding (GnRH 0.02 mg; LH/hCG 1500 IU; Progesterone 500 mg; all i/m) towards improving their reproductive efficiency together with the weekly profile of plasma progesterone, total protein, total cholesterol, triglycerides from the day of treatment up to 7 weeks post-treatment. The conception rates obtained within two cycles following 3 treatments were 66.66, 83.33 and 50.00 %, respectively, with an overall mean of 66.66 % (12/18) against 33.33 % (2/6) in control untreated cows (P < 0.01). In GnRH, LH and progesterone treated and control groups, the pooled mean plasma progesterone concentrations averaged 3.42 ? 0.38, 5.19 ? 0.52, 4.03 ? 0.49 and 3.38 ? 0.41 ng/ml (P < 0.05), respectively, with an overall mean of 4.00 ? 0.23 ng/ml. The value in hCG treated cows was significantly (P < 0.05) higher as compared to control group. The mean P4 levels in conceived and non-conceived groups were 5.68 ? 0.35 and 2.59 ? 0.23 ng/ml (P < 0.01). The overall weekly-pooled mean progesterone profile recorded from 0 to 7th week post-oestrus/insemination was at basal level on day of oestrus, which increased significantly (P < 0.05) by 7th day post-oestrus, fluctuated insignificantly till 7th week with the peak value on 5th week post-oestrus. The progesterone concentration in conceived group remained more or less at constant high level till 7th week post-insemination, while in non-conceiving cows it showed peaks on 2nd and 5th week with drops on 3rd and 6th week. The progesterone level on day ?7? post-insemination was relatively lower in non-conceived cows as compared to conceived ones (2.99 ? 0.47 vs 4.78 ? 0.85 ng/ml), suggesting luteal deficiency.
KEYWORDS: Hormonal therapies, Plasma progesterone profile, Fertility, Repeat breeding cows.
International Journal of Cow Science, 1(1): 60-62.
Effect of total mixed rations on the growth performance of crossbred heifers
Prasoon Chand Saxena, SS Chauhan, Ashok Kumar, Ripusudan kumar and nidhi garg
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Science, GB Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (Uttaranchal) India. E-mail: email@example.com
An experiment was conducted using three types of experimental Total Mixed Rations on the 18 growing cross-bred heifers ranging between 100 ? 202 kg of body weight. These heifers were divided into three group of six each on the basis of their body weight. These TMRs? were formulated maintaining roughage, concentrate ratio as 60:40. The different types of TMR used were sorghum, wheat bhusa, maize grain, DORB, Rice polish, MOC, DOMC, Malt sprout, Molasses, Urea, Calcite powder, Common salt and Mineral mixture. The CP content of these mixtures was maintained as 11.81 in TMR-I, 10.97 in TMR-II and 11.22 in TMR-III. Similarly energy level also maintained is also equal in all the three ration. The trial was conducted for 90 days. Results revealed that at the end of the experiment significantly high body weight gain (P>0.05) was noted in T1 (47.25 kg) and lower in T3 (40.08 kg).
KEYWORDS: Total mixed ration, growth performance, body weight gain.
International Journal of Cow Science, 1(1): 63-65.
Control of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in cows through application of an herbal gel
K NATH AND JYOTI B DUTTA
Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara Campus, Guwahati-22, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com
A study was undertaken to access the effectiveness of Mastilep topical herbal gel, in the control of subclinical mastitis. The study was carried out during the period from August 1998 to September 1999 in four small dairy units in the Khanapara region of Assam and Meghalaya. The farms collectively had 89 cross-bred (Jersey X Local) cows, of which 34 cows were in their early stage of lactation, 21 in mid lactation, 16 in late lactation and the remaining 18 were dried off due to pregnancy. The overall prevalence of SCM was found to be 64.7 per cent. In farm 1, (antibiotic treated cows), out of 12 affected animals, 5 were cured using Pendisrin- SH or Vetclox Plus (commercially available intramammary antibiotic therapy). The non-recovered cows were treated with Gentamycin sulphate based on their antibiograms. Out of 18 cows each affected in two other farms 15 and 16 recovered after Mastilep treatment, showing a recovery rate of 88.3 and 88.8 per cent, respectively. SCM appeared on farm I in about four months after it remained free from SCM. On the other hand, the prevalence rates of farms II and III were lower and the incidence rate of SCM on farm III was zero, indicating that Mastilep had a protective effect too. After bacterial isolation Staphylococcus aureus alone was found to be the major mastitogen from the non-recovered cows in farm 1. Staphylococcus aureus along with Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus bovis were also isolated from the other two farms.
KEYWORDS: Subclinical mastitis, mastilep, antibiotics, herbal therapy.
International Journal of Cow Science, 1(1): 66-72.
Effect of Wheat Straw Based Total Mixed Ration with Prosopis juliflora pods (Mesquite pods) on Performance of Lactating Cows
PR PANDYA, GR PATEL, RS GUPTA, DC PATEL, MB PANDE AND MC DESAI
Animal Nutrition Research Department, Anand Agriculture University, Anand ? 388 110, Gujarat, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
A lactation study of 25 weeks duration was carried out to explore the effect of wheat straw based total mixed rations on performance of crossbred (Jersey x Kankrej and Holstein Friesian x Kankrej) cows. Sixteen crossbred cows were randomly divided in to four dietary treatments viz. T1: TMR with 30 % wheat straw and without Prosopis juliflora pods, T2: TMR with 30 % wheat straw and 10 % Prosopis juliflora pods replacing rice polish w/w, T3: TMR. with 30 % wheat straw and 20 % Prosopis juliflora pods replacing rice polish w/w and T4 (Control): Conventional system of feeding roughage and concentrates separately. Wheat straw was used as roughage in T4 without processing. The TMRs were prepared by mixing wheat straw ground through 8 mm sieve with concentrates. The values for modulus of uniformity were 2:6:2, 1:6:3 and 2:7:1 for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The NDF content in TMRs ranged from 42.97 to 46.74 %. The average daily DMI was 7.92, 7.78, 8.92 and 5.62 kg in T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively with significant treatment differences (P<0.01). The percent DMI and DMI per kg metabolic body weight also followed the similar trend (P<0.05). The DMI through wheat straw was 33 to 41 % higher in TMRs than control. Intake of CP, DCP and TDN (Kg/d) revealed values in the range of 1.03 to 1.61; 0.66 to 1.08 and 3.14 to 4.96, respectively with higher DCP (P<0.01) and TDN (P<0.05) intake in all the TMRs than control group. The efficiency of feed and nutrient utilization was not affected by dietary treatments, however, it was found better under conventional system of feeding. Similar trend was also observed for gross and net protein and energy efficiency. The average daily milk production recorded was 7.54, 6.78, 7.82 and 6.20 kg with corresponding values of 3.82, 4.01, 4.05 and 4.31 for milk fat content in T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. Total mixed rations improved milk yield and it was the highest in T4 with 26 % improvement over control group. The milk constituents like TS, SNF, Protein, Phosphorus and calcium were not affected by dietary treatments. Digestibility of nutrients was on par in all the groups. The average daily feed cost was recorded higher in TMR groups but the feed cost per kg milk and kg FCM yield were more or less similar among the treatments. It was concluded that feeding TMR instead of feeding concentrates and roughage (wheat straw) separately increased feed intake and milk production in crossbred cows. Poor quality crop residues like wheat straw can be better utilized through TMR instead of feeding alone. Use of Prosopis juliflora pods as an unconventional energy rich feed can replace rice polish successfully with reduction in cost of feed formulation.
KEYWORDS: Total Mixed Ration, Feeding system, Prosopis juliflora pods, dairy cattle, lactation
International Journal of Cow Science, 1(1): 73-77.
FMD vaccination status of milch cattle and buffalo in Bareilly (India)
RAJA RAM SINGH AND MAHESH CHANDER
Division of Extension Education, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, UP, 243122. India.
The data were gathered from randomly selected 240 farmers of 12 villages in two blocks and the veterinary officers of state department of animal husbandry posted in Bareilly district, India. Besides, the available records regarding FMD vaccination in particular were also scanned to substantiate the information. Overall, only 25.83% respondents knew the vaccination schedule for FMD. 50% of the respondents in block II and 68.33% in block I were involved in regular vaccination of animals every year. Overall, only 59.17% respondents reported that their animals were vaccinated against FMD every year. According to 59.17% of respondents, buffaloes were the animals covered under FMD vaccination followed by cattle. Whereas, 85% vets reported that they vaccinated buffaloes as prophylaxis followed by cattle (80%). It might be due to more buffaloes in the research area. Only 7.88% of total animals were covered under vaccination. The comparable figures for whole Bareilly district for FMD is 6.85% and for UP, it is 30% for all types of vaccination across all species of animals. 45% doctors reported that they had refrigerator in their hospital to maintain cold chain for FMD vaccine storage. Overall, 49.17% respondents ranked poverty as most important constraints in getting their animals vaccinated. 45% vets reported that illiteracy among farmers was the main constraints and they ranked it as first.
KEYWORDS: FMD, vaccination, animals, hospital, illiteracy, vaccination constraints
A comparative study of serum immunoglobulin-E levels in healthy and warble affected cattle of arid zone.
AK KATARIA AND N KATARIA*.
Department of Veterinary Microbiology, *Department of Veterinary Physiology, College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner, 334 001, (Rajasthan) India.
Total immunoglobulin-E levels and total eosinophil counts were measured in Tharparkar cattle native to arid zone of Rajasthan. The sera collected from 29 adult healthy and 6 female cattle affected with warbles were analysed. Significantly higher IgE levels and higher eosinophilic counts were recorded in warble infected cattle than the healthy group.
KEYWORDS: Cattle, eosinophils, radioimmunoassay, serum immunoglobulin-E, warbles.
International Journal of Cow Science, 1(1): 81.
Study of Krumikuthar Rasa on ascariasis in cow calves
RG JANI AND PR PATEL
Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Anand Campus, Anand 388 001, India. E-mail: email@example.com
Krumikuthar Rasa was tried in 45 cow calves of below six month of age and either of sex. The drug was given orally once @ 13 mg/kg body weight after weighing the body weight of each calves. The qualitative and quantitative study of parasitic load was studied after administration of drug. The drug was effective in eliminating the parasites on 14th day with complete clinical recovery.
KAYWORDS: Ascariasis, Krumikuthar Rasa, cow calves, herbal anathematics.
International Journal of Cow Science, 1(1): 82.
Clinical case studies of Panchgavya on some disease conditions in wild and domestic animals
RG JANI, CN BHUVA AND PR PATEL
Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, Anand 388 001, Gujarat, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The cows have been given position as Kamdhenu in Hindu mythological literature, which evolved during Samudra manthan. Also Gautam Rushi had Kamdhenu who fulfill the all the requirement of day to day need. The ayurvedic preparations or medicines of cow origin such as milk, curd, ghee, urine and dung are mostly known as ?Panchgavya?. The medicinal formulations of Panchgavya have not been validated as widely as other ayurvedic medicines in the advanced scientific community. The immunomodulatory effects of Indian cow urine, ghee and other material is still a virgin field to explore scientifically. However, several ethnoveterinary aspects and old traditional approaches support the Panchgavya system efficacy. Here are some of my observations on several clinical cases in Veterinary Practice.
DEBILITY IN ORPHAN HYENA CUB (Hyaena hyaena)
ECZEMA IN HANUMAN LANGUR (Presbytis entellus)
DYSENTERY IN A PUP
International Journal of Cow Science, 1(1): 83-86.
Conservation and improvement of indigenous cattle in Rajasthan state
Secretary, Rajasthan Gosewa Ayog, Government of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. E-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Rajasthan, being a desert state of India, has harboured many breed of cattle which are well adopted to survive in the adverse climatic conditions. However, because of the uncontrolled and unplanned cross-breeding program there is a diminishing number of the indigenous breeds. The crossbred cattle are unable to adjust to the harsh climate and are more prone to many diseases thus making the cross breeding program a failure. As a result some of the best breeds of Rajasthan like, Tharparkar, Rathi, Nagori have declined significantly in number. This paper discusses various scientific methods, which are practically applicable, to preserve the indigenous germplasm and further improve the breeds for better performance.
KEYWORDS: Indigenous cattle, germplasm conservation, Tharparkar, Rathi, nagori.
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